A pond for breeding fish is a very broad concept! This article will discuss the main aspects of building a pond for industrial fish farming. This is a serious and capital-intensive business.
Fish ponds could be: spawning, fry, rearing, feeding, wintering, uterine and quarantine. Each pond has its own characteristics. Usually, a certain set of ponds is planned for the certain farm.
If the farm is feeding, the business of which is based on fattening fish, one or two feeding ponds and wintering ponds are enough.
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In general terms, a pond is an artificial reservoir or a drain reservoir of water. The pond for feeding fish should have the following characteristics:
Reliable water supply. Relatively fast filling and circulation. Ponds with atmospheric supply are very rarely built, more often filling is organized from streams and rivers. Water supply organized by building a channel, pipeline fittings and connecting pipes. Often the entire water supply channel is closed in reinforced concrete pipes, which significantly increases the safety and reliability of water supply. It is advisable to choose pipes from heavy concrete with reinforcement with a cylindrical frame in accordance with national standard (GOST 6482-88) — these are the most durable pipes.
Fast draining possibility. It is not always necessary to drain the wate fror fish harvesting and pond cleaning or maintenance.
But sometimes, in the fish industry, quickly drain the water must be needed. For example, in case of fish infection, or water pollution. Therefore, in order not to flood other people’s areas or harm nature, it is important to provide a system for a relatively quick drain of water. If ravines, swamps, lowlands and rivers are far from our ponds, drainage channels or pipeline systems will also have to be built.
Water circulation. It is very important for fish health to have reliable water circulation. Nursing ponds are not capable of self-cleaning like natural reservoirs, and an artificial filtration system is practically inapplicable in such conditions.
Ideally, the pond should be filled with fresh water once a year, then recirculation is calculated, depending on the type of pond and quantity of fish.
Serviceability. The slope of the bed is required, which must be at least 0.003 (11.8 in (30 cm) for every 328 ft (100 m)). The slope and smooth bottom will ensure uniform water renewal and the distribution of silt deposits.
Ponds could be organized in areas where other types of agriculture are difficult.
Should be avoided: Low-lying, swampy areas, with underground springs, since ponds in such places are very difficult to maintain and clean.
Areas with forest and shrubs must be cleaned of vegetation and roots. It is necessary to level the bottom, to exclude the appearance of snags and holes. Pits complicate both the collection of fish and maintenance work.
More convenient for pond farming are deep marshy soils and peat soils.
Former peat mines are also great. A large layer of soil has already been removed from tophora mining. Stumps and roots are absent. A drainage system has been created that can be used in the construction of a water management system. For example, the Biserovsky fish factory in the Moscow region was organized in this way.
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The main stages of the dam construction:
The top humus layer of soil with plants and roots is removed.
It is important to immediately ensure the best adhesion of the dam to the mineral soil. To do this, make a clay base, the height depends on the water level. Clay also prevents water from filtering through the dam.
The more permeable the soil, the more gentle the slopes should be. For example, sandy soil requires large slopes, smaller ones on clay soil. For the passage of cars on the dam, the width of the overpass must be at least 4 meters!
During construction, it is useful to roll the dam with a bulldozer. Of course, if you have the opportunity (and finances), you can use the steamroller.
When filling the dam, space is provided for the installation of a spillway pipe. Reinforced concrete pipe will be the most durable.
By the way, the water supply pipe must be laid above the surface of the water. the fall of which will provide additional aeration and oxygenation.
It is important to plant shrubs on the dam crest and slopes. This protects against erosion and prevents the growth of tall trees. Tall trees provide shade although this is not always a bad thing! Also, tall trees cover the pond with foliage, and can also damage the dam when falling during a hurricane.